Saturday, May 23, 2020
Throughout the centuries, women have been relegated to roles as mothers and housewives. Any women who do not conform to societyÃ¢â¬â¢s chauvinistic and harsh rules suffer alienation and are considered to be sluts or unlovable independents. These unfair tenets imposed by society do not allow women to be free in how they live. After experiencing an Ã¢â¬Å"awakeningÃ¢â¬ , Edna Pontellier struggles to find her place in a society that does not allow for women to be anything other than compliant wives. She cannot see herself as another submissive woman in her Creole society; rather, she would like to choose her own path. Kate Chopin, in The Awakening, illustrates that women are unable to live their lives as they see fit through EdnaÃ¢â¬â¢s struggle to cope withÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦This type of woman is the accepted social norm. In rebellion against the idea that women should be restricted to motherly duties, Edna begins to neglect her children and family obligations. One of these family obligations is to receive callers. When her husband asks who called, Edna Pontellier responds, Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ËThere were a good manyÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ËI found their cards when I got home; I was outÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬ (Chopin 68). The protagonist of the story flagrantly abandons her duties in order to pursue the things that she finds to be more interesting because she believes that the duties assigned to her do not allow her to express herself or live as she pleases. After breaking from her societal role, those around her begin to condemn her desertion of duty. Mr. Pontellier responds to his wifeÃ¢â¬â¢s lack of receiving callers and neglect of their children by saying, Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬Ëit seems to me the utmost folly for a woman at the head of a household, and the mother of children, to spend in an atelier days which would be better employedÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬ (Chopin 76-77). EdnaÃ¢â¬â¢s husbandÃ¢â¬â¢s, a representative of traditional Creole values, berating of his wife il lustrates that her nonchalance towards their family is not acceptable in their society. For Leonce Pontellier, Ã¢â¬Å"a discourse for the redefinition of female roles does not existÃ¢â¬ (Muirhead). In other words, social change in favor of women is intolerable for the conservatively-minded Mr. Pontellier, who will not happily allow is wife to go against the standard. Edna Pontellier is unable toShow MoreRelatedJustice And Indifference In The Lottery By Shirley Jackson827 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesplaces, with different people, but are the same in many ways. The reason this is, is because these storyÃ¢â¬â¢s relate to what the story means, what I mean by this is that both texts involve traumatic experiences. In the lottery by Ã¢â¬Å"Shirley JacksonÃ¢â¬ a women named Tessie (Mrs. Hutchinson). She won the lottery, the irony is that she won but she didnÃ¢â¬â¢t win any money, no, she got stoned to death by her neighbors and family. In the poem by martin Niemoller Ã¢â¬Å"First they c ameÃ¢â¬ this poem is about how Martin NiemollerRead MoreIs Abortion A Violation Of An Unborn Child s Right? Essay1709 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagessince women have, yet this old issue, is still around and being heavily debated. But will allowing women to have an abortion be a violation of an unborn child s life, or is not allowing abortion violating a woman s right to choice, freedom, and control over her body? This is an important issue, as it will affect any foetus at random, and many women. What are the disadvantages of allowing abortion? Some women who are pregnant are not ready for/do not want a child, and some of these women willRead MoreThe Lottery, By Shirley Jackson925 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagestime. Once Tessie got to her family it was time to pick and Bill Hutchinson Jr--TessieÃ¢â¬â¢s son--had the paper with the black dot in the middle. Tessie was filled with rage, she started ranting saying Ã¢â¬Å"he didnÃ¢â¬â¢t get enough time to pickÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"It wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t fairÃ¢â¬ (264) In different cultures there are certain requirements for their citizens to participate in for them to continue to live in the community. Finding out that her son was the one with the black dot and knowing someone from her family was going toRead MoreColorist Culture Beliefs Essay1105 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesbeauty. People who fall victim to this altered view have gone as far as skin bleaching and extreme poisonous routes which have contributed to the deaths of women trying to stay in trend. Countries such as India victimize dark females with favor placed on lighter skin. Africa is a predominantly a dark skinned continent that has taken up the fair skin death trap; a country that should be praising rich cocoa skin, or darker skin that is native to India began to praise European like skin. The coloristRead MoreWomen on the Frontline - Persuasive Essay850 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesAllÃ¢â¬â¢s fair in work and war ItÃ¢â¬â¢s an age old argument, men are all around better than women. For decades a womenÃ¢â¬â¢s job was in the kitchen, cooking meals or taking care of the children although for most of us these views are now outdated. The army however seems to think they still apply. Looking back though history we read of Joan of Arc, the French freedom fighter and of the Sufferage movements and we see women throughout the ages were getting involved with fighting and politics of war. TheRead MoreAnalysis Of Never Give All The Heart732 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pagesabout vulnerability, love, and blame. It warns of both the fickleness of women and that if one loves in an overbearing manner it will actually be detrimental. YeatsÃ¢â¬â¢ personal inspiration for the poem was likely Maud Gonne, a woman whom he proposed to four times, who rejected him all four times and then proceeded to marry someone else. The poem begins in a manner suggestive of a lover scorned. Yeats talks about how passionate women, which at this point in time is not necessarily a compliment, donÃ¢â¬â¢t considerRead MoreWomen Is A Man s World989 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesworldÃ¢â¬ ¦ Since the 20th century, women have come a long way, gaining the right to vote and to have an education. Since then, women have continuously been challenging traditional stereotypes and showing that they are just as good as men. However, even after these feminist movements, gender inequality still exists all around the globe as a major issue in our world today. This is especially true for Australia, as there are many people who continuously expect less of women because they have stereotypicalRead MoreWomen Should NOT Have Equality Essay1026 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages Men are men. Women are women. We have different strengths and weaknesses that we contribute to our society. For centuries, men have done most of the hunting and gathering, while women are the caretakers and watch over the family. The roles that women play are different than the roles that men play. So why the push for equality between the two? We will never be the same in physical or mental strength. Men and women will al ways be different people and different genders. Women should not have sameRead MoreThe Wage Gap Of The 1963 Pay Equity Act, And Making A Facebook884 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages2015. While employment is thankfully rising, the wage gap isnÃ¢â¬â¢t budging. Gender wage gap in Ohio has been consistently 22 cents less than a dollar for a while now. The Pay Equity Act was passed in 1963 and we have barely budged since. The act hasnÃ¢â¬â¢t been updated since it was passed, in 1963. With the cost of living and needs higher now, women deserve to be getting the same amount of money as men do. It is very traditional to think of women as a lesser counterpart. A great solution to this issue wouldRead MoreThe History of Makeup Essay1269 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesmakeup because it was so expensive and hard to get and or find. The women who actually had it or used it were the prostitutes and the wealthier women. The Ã¢â¬Å"Cheap KnockoffÃ¢â¬â¢sÃ¢â¬ were the ones who were sold to the poorer women. T he people didnÃ¢â¬â¢t really care if the slaves used makeup but most didnÃ¢â¬â¢t anyway. The slaves had no time for the use of makeup. In Ancient Rome makeup was a big thing. Makeup and how someone smelled meant a lot. Women who had a decent smell were presumed to be wealthy. The Romans disliked
Tuesday, May 12, 2020
Character Analysis Essay: Grant Wiggins of Ã¢â¬Å"A Lesson Before DyingÃ¢â¬ Grant Wiggins is very conflicted and confused about many aspects of his life when he comes back to his home town. Despite his reluctance, he is eventually forced to overcome his defeatist attitude and accept the sense of responsibility that Tante Lou and Miss Emma are trying to instill in him. Grant is also haunted by his past having grown up in a very racist small town which he could never find a way to deal with. I believe that, much like myself, Grant Wiggins experiences a great deal of internal struggle and confusion when he returns to his home town. I think that he is trying to get over the negative experiences that he had during his childhood in Bayonne by movingÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦(Gaines 141). This quote illustrates how Grant pushes everybody away when he does not immediately see the positive results of his helping Jefferson or the children. By the end of the story, it is clear that Mr. Gaines has employed a very effective allegory to associate JeffersonÃ¢â¬â¢s death as a martyr with Jesus ChristÃ¢â¬â¢s sacrificial death to save the souls of the earth. One apparent parallel between the two is the close proximity of their execution dates, Jefferson being terminated 2 weeks after Easter. The fact that Grant considers himself to be better than all of the black residents of Bayonne is one of the many things that holds Grant back from being an effective coach to assist Jefferson in his quest to become a man. Another contributing factor to his ineffective teaching is his lack of self confidence. If Jefferson does not see a worthy example of how to be a man, then he will never effectively become one himself. After a few visits to see Jefferson in his cell, persevering through his own belief that he is not making a difference, being told that he was wasting his time, he realized that he was doing much more than performing a favor for Miss Emma and Tante Lou. He realize d that he wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t only trying to turn Jefferson into a man. This was Miss Emma and Tante LouÃ¢â¬â¢s way of teaching himself a lesson on how to live his life and who he really is. Ã¢â¬Å"I need you,Ã¢â¬ I told him. Ã¢â¬Å"I need you much more than you could ever need meÃ¢â¬ (Gaines, 193). This quote represents theShow MoreRelatedAnalysis of A Lesson Before Dying787 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesAnalysis of A Lesson Before Dying by Ernest Gaines : Themes of Women and Community Ã¢â¬ ¢ Other essays and articles on related literary topics can be found in the Literature Archives at Article Myriad Ã¢â¬ ¢ The women that surround Grant in Ã¢â¬Å"A Lesson Before DyingÃ¢â¬ by Ernest Gaines are all catalysts for his eventual change away from the bitterness and doubts. Without Miss Emma or Tante Lou, it seems natural to conclude that Grant would have stagnated in his despair and spent his life feeling angry and irritableRead MoreA Lesson While Living by Ernest Gaines1639 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages A Lesson While Living In a society where hardships occur daily, it is vital to have something to hold on to as an anchor. This reliance or commitment is in the form of friends, family, or even tangible possessions; however, humans sometimes have to fulfill deeds for others instead of continually thinking of themselves. Given these obligations, there results both a need and a desire to complete certain tasks for other individuals, for a community, or even for a higher power. In his novel, A LessonRead MoreSummary Of A Lesson Before Dying 1688 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesSeptember, 2015 A Lesson Before Dying Year: 1993 Title: A Lesson Before Dying The title of this novel Ã¢â¬Å"A Lesson Before DyingÃ¢â¬ is what the bookÃ¢â¬â¢s plot revolves around. Dying refers to JeffersonÃ¢â¬â¢s death, while the lesson refers to the lessons learnt by Jefferson, the white community, and Grant. Lesson 1: The article Ã¢â¬ËaÃ¢â¬â¢ means that there is one, single lesson that is being taught before someoneÃ¢â¬â¢s death, which is what the title really refers to in the shallowest sense. This lesson talks about GrantRead MoreSelflessness And Courage In Ernest Gainess A Lesson Before Dying1146 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesway. Ernest Gaines established this idea in A Lesson Before Dying with his dynamic characters. Most of the characters learn a lesson and make a change in their lives for the better. Although some may argue that the lesson that is being taught and learned before dying refers only to Jefferson, a careful analysis shows that the whole community gains a lesson from a couple of teachers about selflessness and courage. One of the characters that learns a lesson about helping others is Jefferson. JeffersonRead MoreTuesdays with Morrie Essay1074 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesMorrie, uses plot and story, character development, point of view, theme, and symbols to convey his mesage. Include your personal thoughts and views, as well as textual references, to support your opinions. In Mitch AlbomÃ¢â¬â¢s TuesdayÃ¢â¬â¢s with Morrie, Albom detailed his personal experiences with his professor Morrie Schwartz. Mitch also expressed how influential Morrie was to his friends, relatives, patients, and coworkers. Within this essay, the plot and story, character development, point of viewRead MoreFinal Essay: English 1Bs Journey 1128 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesI feel about a certain topic or issue. Therefore I have recently declared myself as a literature major. Through the structured English 1Bs course and power of words from authors; Boisseau, Bishop, Glaspell and Ibsen I have gained valuable life lessons . English 1B was not easy, which frankly surprised me. In past English courses I could effortlessly pass the class with an Ã¢â¬Å"AÃ¢â¬ without putting much time and work in my writings. I rarely read the assigned readings in English 1A and expected toRead MoreThe Percepciont of Death on the Play Everyman Essay1175 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesa simple moral lesson to both educated and illiterate audiencesÃ¢â¬ (Gyamfi Schmidt, 2011). Ã¢â¬Å"EverymanÃ¢â¬ is about a man who is content with his life when Death calls and tells him about his end. The author has used metaphorical names for characters to show up the moral of the play. Ã¢â¬Å"EverymanÃ¢â¬ is a metaphorical story that shows the value of life and death. In the play Everyman, death is exemplified and treated as a messenger of God that goes to visit Everyman. Everyman is a character that representsRead MoreA Deeper Analysis On The Aspect Of Race As Local Color1565 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesA Deeper Analysis on the Aspect of Race as Local Color: Jim Crow Laws Imagine you are a person of color in the early to mid 1900Ã¢â¬â¢s. You the mother of three young children. Despite your best intentions, your children are forced to grow up in poverty. When you direct them out of the house to go to school, they see the all the white boys and girls walking toward one school and all of the black boys and girls walking to another. Imagine being asked by your children why they donÃ¢â¬â¢t go to school with theRead MoreFairy Tales By The Brother s Grimm, Rapunzel And Cinderella1729 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThroughout history, fairy tales have been told with the intent of teaching a lesson. These stories have been altered numerous times, varying with a changing society. Classic fairy tales by the BrotherÃ¢â¬â¢s Grimm, Rapunzel and Cinderella, were published in the mid 1800s. Many years later Disney released its own versions of these Grimm fairy tales called Tangled, a modern take on Rapunzel, and Cinderella published in 2010 and 1950 respectfully. Both fairy tales compare and contrast with the more modernRead MoreScarlet Ibis868 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesÃ¯ » ¿Hailey M. Camper Mrs. Lauren Owen English 9 Honors 17 September 2013 The Scarlet Ibis: A Literary Analysis There are multiple literary elements that combine together to create the theme and mood of a story. In the short story, Ã¢â¬Å"The Scarlet Ibis,Ã¢â¬ the author, James Hurst, demonstrates the use of literary elements and the importance of vital life lessons. The mood in this short story is deeply nostalgic and melancholy. The narrator faces the difficult obstacle of his pride vs. Himself (which
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
EICHER SCHOOL HOLIDAY HOMEWORK CLASS Ã¢â¬â VIII ENGLISH Q1Read the newspaper article and answer the questions that follow: Ban is the correct move 10 Feb 2009, Vikram Sinha The move by the central government to finally introduce an amendment to the Motor Vehicles Act, 1988, prohibiting the use of cell phones while driving, has materialized. It also ensures that there are no loopholes left in the law by including hands-free sets in the ban . Doubtless, there will be those who claim that such devices are safe since they free both hands for driving. We will write a custom essay sample on Thw Winter Holiday Homework or any similar topic only for you Order Now It is a false claim. There is an assumption that it is the physical hindrance caused by conversing on the phone while driving that is the main safety hazard. Rather, the issue is the mental distraction of the driver. The US is pushing all its states to implement a similar ban. For evidence, it cites several studies, such as one by the university of Utah, which prove that using hands-free devices is as dangerous as speaking on cell phone without them. Another study cited by the report establishes why this so. It states that conversing with a fellow passenger is not dangerous and many instead lead to greater safety. The reason for this is simple enough . a co-passenger is likely to keep an eye on the road, adjust or stop danger. A person at the other end of a phone connection cannot do this. The conservation will remain unchanged, demanding the driverÃ¢â¬â¢s attention and lessening his focus on the road at the moment when he might need it the most. The introduction of such a specific law in India is long overdue. And now that one is finally being introduced, the Ministry of Road Transport and highways is taking the correct step by being thorough. [ source: TOI 10 Feb,2009] 2. 1 Ã¢â¬ËIt is a false claimÃ¢â¬â¢ ( para 1). What is the false claim? The claim that A. the amendment is finally being introduced B. co-drivers can help a driver avoid accidents C. all cell phones can create distractions for drivers D. hand- free phones can be safely used when driving 2. 2. What is the usual assumption of people? A. Conversing on a cellphone causes maximum accidents. B. Using a phone while driving does not cause any difficulty C. Mental distractions are more harmful than physical distractions. D. These bans should only be implemented in US. and 2. 3 According to the passage, in what way is the driver talking to a co-passenger less risky as compared to talking on phone? A. Talking to a co-passenger increases the concentration of the driver. B. Talking to a co-passenger keeps a driver awake in long drives. C. Co- passengers will stop the conversation and warn the driver of danger. D. Co-passengers can answer the phone calls 2. 4 Ã¢â¬ËThe US is pushing all its states to implement a similar banÃ¢â¬â¢ Here Ã¢â¬Ësimilar banÃ¢â¬â¢ refers to A. Use of cell phones while driving B. Talking to co- passengers while driving C. Use of both cell-phones and hands- free devices while driving D. None of the above 2. 5. Choose the word from the passage that means the same as Ã¢â¬Å" strictly not allowedÃ¢â¬ A. rohibited B. implemented C. hindrance D. loopholes Q2 Prepare a book review on the class library / school library book you have read based on the following points: 1) Name of the book 2) About the author 3) Judgement 4) Summary G. SC Bio Q1. State the importance of water. Q2. Why is the frequency of irrigation higher in summer? Q3. What is irrigati on? Describe two methods of irrigation which conserve water. Q4. Write a paragraph in your own words on each of the following a) Preparation of soil. b) Sowing Q5. Why weeds should be removed before they produce flowers and seeds? Q6. Why is weeding necessary? Chem Q1. State the different ways to stop fire. Q2. Why a gas burner does has holes surrounding it (on outside)? Q3. Cooking utensils acquire the coating of a black powdery substance if kept on yellow flame of the burner. Why? Q4. Draw a well labeled diagram to show the different regions of flame. Phy Q1. What is the purpose of L. H. C? (Large Hadron Collider) Q2. How are charges developed here? Q3. Write two areas where problems are coming LHC? Q4. What discovery it will make once it becomes successful? Q5. Write a short note on LHC. [READ CHAPTER NATURAL PHENOMENA TO UNDERSTAND THE CONCEPT] S. ST ? Collect information on Durban ,South Africa Earth Summit held this year. ? The information has to be pasted in the class note books. ? Students will be graded on the work submitted. S. kt Do pg . 77 to 81 in Assignment. Hindi (Do page num 117 and 135 from assignment) MATHS 1. Express the following as the product of two factors:- i) 18Ãâ"2 + 24x + 8 ii) 25t2 + 10t + 1 iii) 9u2 Ã¢â¬â 6u + 1 2. Evaluate (48Ãâ"2 + 30x + 3) ? 16x + 3) 3. Divide :- i) a6 + 2a3b3 Ã¢â¬â 3b6 by a3 Ã¢â¬â b3 ii) 4Ãâ"4 + 1 by 2Ãâ"2 + 2x + 1 4. Check whether x -2 is a factor of x3 Ã¢â¬â 8 5. A certain sum of simple interest becomes double in 20 years. In how many years will it become four times? 6. If the C. P of 8 articles is equal to S. P of 6 articles, find the gain %. 7. What sum of money will amount to 45582. 25 at 6[pic] p. a in 2 years, interest being compounded annually? 8. A cubical container is 15 cm long. The volume of container is 5. 4 cm3. Find the area of its end. 9. Due to rainfall, a square terrace of length 9m is filled with water up to a height of 6 cm. How many litres of water has accumulated on the terrace? 10. Find the value of x, if i) 2x = (6)2 Ã¢â¬â (4)2 ii) 6x = (23)2 Ã¢â¬â (17)2 11. If the area of rectangular field is 21 x2 Ã¢â¬â 7x and one of its sides is 7 x,what is its other side ? 12. Find the greatest no. of seven digits which is perfect square. What is the square root of this number? 13. A decimal fraction is multiplied by itself. If the product is 251953. 8025, find the fraction. 14. Find the volume of a cube whose total surface is 486 cm2 ? 15. Multiply Ã¢â¬â 3x2y by (7x3y Ã¢â¬â 5xy2). Verify the product by taking x = -2, y = -1. How to cite Thw Winter Holiday Homework, Papers
Saturday, May 2, 2020
Question: Discuss about the Factors Influencing Individual Taxpayer. Answer: Introduction: Tax agents like Mike Slow should realize that it is a requirement of the Australian Tax Authority for early filing of clients tax requirements. There are various procedures and recommendations that are required to meet the lodgment schedule. They include; All the clients attached to mike slow will have to be included in the 85% calculation on time-lodgment performance. An update of the clients list regularly will help him manage the due dates of while ensuring that his services are not included in the calculation of lodgment program performance(Devos, 2014). The Tax Agent Portal will be used in practitioner lodgment services (PLS) using the business electronic lodgment services (ELS). Prior years are not included in the calculation part as the tax regime only considers the current years lodgment on time performance. When calculating Mike slows on-time program performance on lodgment, he should consider; Current years tax return and previous year tax overdue Inclusion of current year tax return Taking on new clients and previous clients will be affected if Mike lodge the current years return after the differed date or due date. On-time performance will be affected(Quick Tax Lodgement Services, 2004) . A return is not necessary (RNN) if it is for only one financial year. The tax will be expected to be lodged in the future if RNN is lodged. Lodgment will not be of importance if it is notified as further return not necessary (FRNN). The following are the steps that Zenith Business Pty Ltd, the company can lodge its returns to the Australian Tax Office by using the following ways; first is by using a standard business reporting (SBR) Software as required for a company. Second, the business management can opt to file its taxes by using paper. The other way that the company may use to file income tax to the Australia Tax Office is by using a registered tax agent. Before meeting officers from Australia Tax Office, Zenith Business Pty Ltd directors must first check when the company's tax return is due. This might be done through a tax agent if the company lodged its income tax through a registered tax agent. For a company, 31st October is the date set aside to clear any outstanding tax returns. Therefore, if Zenith Business Pty Ltd has returns which are outstanding, it should first clear before meeting the officers. Second step; the company directors should ensure that they have they have all reports of the company in regards to taxable income, it is also advisable if they have documents and reports showing the company's PAYG installments, credits, and tax offsets and the amount that is refundable to show the officers(Quick Tax Lodgement Services, 2004) . The last step is for the directors to ensure that they have supporting documents that may be asked by tax officers through a letter of schedule. For example, supporting documents for capital gains, documents on foreign source income, offsets, dividend income, supporting documents for taxable payments annual reporting e.t.c. References Devos, K. (2014). Factors Influencing Individual Taxpayer Compliance Behaviour management. Dordrecht [u.a.]: Springer. Quick Tax Lodgement Services. (2004).
Tuesday, March 24, 2020
Examines Soviet American influences in the Kosovo Province of Serbia after disintegration of Yugoslavia. History, ethnic factions, politics, nationalism, human rights. This research examines Soviet and American influences on events in Kosovo Province, Serbia subsequent to the disintegration of Yugoslavia. As the Former Soviet Union (FSU) itself disintegrated in the winter of 1991-1992, successor states to the FSU, particularly Russia and Ukraine, also have influenced outcomes in Kosovo, and these influences are addressed in this research when appropriate. Kosovo is a rugged area four-fifths the size of Connecticut. The regions population of almost two million is 90 percent ethnic Albanian, and an additional one million ethnic Albania
Friday, March 6, 2020
Advanced Management Accounting Assignment Essays Advanced Management Accounting Assignment Essay Advanced Management Accounting Assignment Essay A budget according to Dry (2008) can be defined as a financial plan for implementing the various decisions that management has made or a quantitative expression of planned activities. In addition, a budget is an estimate of costs, revenues, and resources over a specified period, reflecting a reading of future financial conditions and goals. It an organization, it is one of the most important administrative tools, as it serves as a plan of action for achieving quantified objectives and is a device for coping with foreseeable adverse situations. Budgeting is important in an organization because it helps in setting standards of performance, it plays a critical role in strategic planning and it provides a tool to measure organization results. Budgets usually represent a detailed analysis Of how a company expects to spend money in future time periods. Many companies create budgets on an annual basis so they can carefully outline the expected needs of each department in the business. Losing an annual budget process also limits the amount of time companies spend creating and managing capital resources. On the other hand, there may be a general fear and countermanding about the purpose of the budgetary process and control, as it often regarded as time-consuming, unproductive, ineffective and meaningless rather than it being recognized as a tool for management, in all levels in an organization structure. Managers should be engaged in a detailed planned campaign on education and understanding the importance of budgeting as well as to encourage change from what has become an acceptable culture of imprudence towards budget preparation and suggest ways to make the budgetary process and the information become efficient, effective and meaningful. Total involvement of all managerial levels in budgeting is very important. It is even more necessary to get the participation in budgeting especially at the lowest or supervisory level. Thus, budgeting is no longer seen as the sole responsibility of the chief executive officer, budget officer or as that of the top executive in the company. Rather, all levels of the company will participate in the budgeting process and make commitments to achieving the goals set by the budget. The principal advantage which may accrue from full participation arises mainly from a higher level of motivation. Allowing a person to take an active part in planning and control should result in better co-operation. According to Horseman et al (1999), there are three major benefits of budgeting that states that budgeting compels managers to think ahead by formalizing their responsibilities for planning. It will also provides definite expectations that are the best framework for judging subsequent performance and budgeting aids managers in coordinating their efforts, so that the objectives if the organization as a whole match the objectives. It will also clearly defines areas of responsibility which will require managers of edged centers to take responsibility to achieve the budget target for the operations under their personal control and it should provide a basis of performance appraisal. Budgeting has long been recognized as the accepted procedure for profit planning and many of the most successful companies have applied this procedure. However, the budget practice has been labeled fragmented, conservative, wasteful and ineffective by critics of the budgeting process. Some view holds that budgets are primarily concerned with the allocation of cash to specific activities, and the expected outcome of business orientations and that they do not deal with more subjective issues, such as the quality of products or services provided to customers. These other issues can be stated as part of the budget, but this is not typically done. Also, when a company creates an annual budget, the senior management team may decide that the focus of the organization for the next year will be entirely on meeting the targets outlined in the budget. This can be a problem if the market shifts in a different direction sometime during the budget year. In this case, the company should shift along with the market, rather than adhering to the budget. Furthermore, an experienced manager may attempt to introduce budgetary slack, which involves deliberately reducing revenue estimates and increasing expense estimates, so that he can easily achieve favorable variances against the budget. This can be a serious problem, and requires considerable oversight to spot and eliminate. This concept and critic of budgeting has cast serious doubts on the need for a detailed and rigorously-enforced budgeting system, especially one that integrates the budget model with bonus plans. Nonetheless, the decision to install a budget is up to the management of the company. Management may opt to include a budget justification which is a narrative explanation Of each of the components of the budget, which justifies the cost in terms of the Budgeting has long been recognized as the accepted procedure for profit planning and many of the most successful companies have applied this procedure. However, the budget practice has been labeled fragmented, conservative, wasteful and ineffective by critics of the budgeting process. Some view holds that budgets are primarily concerned with the allocation of cash to specific activities, and the expected outcome of business transactions and that they o not deal with more subjective issues, such as the quality of products or services provided to customers. These other issues can be stated as part of the budget, but this is not typically done. Also, when a company creates an annual budget, the senior management team may decide that the focus of the organization for the next year will be entirely on meeting the targets outlined in the budget. This can be a problem if the market shifts in a different direction sometime during the budget year. In this case, the company should shift along with the market, rather than adhering to the budget. Furthermore, an experienced manager may attempt to introduce budgetary slack, which involves deliberately reducing revenue estimates and increasing expense estimates, so that he can easily achieve favorable variances against the budget. This can be a serious problem, and objectifications which is a narrative explanation of each of the components of the budget, which justifies the cost in terms of the proposed work. The explanations should focus on how each budget item is required to achieve the aims of the project and how the estimated costs in the budget is submitted, all items in the budget should be justified. Reposed work. The explanations should focus on how each budget item is required to achieve the aims of the project and how the estimated costs in the budget is submitted, all items in the budget should be justified. However, even though budgeting will be beneficial to the organization, it also has limitations in its preparation. The budget can be seen as pressure devices imposed by management resulting in bad labor relations and inaccurate accounting record keeping. There may be existence of departmental conflicts that may arise due to the allocation of resources and various department may be lamed when the target set have not be achieved. The company will have difficult to reconcile against the companys goals and individual goals and managers may overestimate costs so that they will not be blamed in the future should they overspend on the expenses and revenues. In most large organizations they will ensure that various type of budget are prepared to keep track of all expenses and incomes for the businesses. It will also help managers and account for a construct their annual report. The ability to budget effectively is an important element in order for an organization becoming successful. There are several types of budgets used in the business may take any of these names; master budget, an operational budget , general cash flow budget, capital budget , and financial budget which will be defined below (Hormone et al 1999). Master Budget: This type of budget is comprehensive estimation on how management expects to conduct all aspects of business that will cover the budgetary period for a period of one year. It will summarize the estimated activity by cash budget, budgeted income statement and balance sheet. It includes interrelated budgets from various departments which managers will use as a subset budget to plan and et performance objectives. This type of budget will used in large organization to ensure managers are kept on the same level. Operational Budget: An operational budget is the most common type of budget used. It forecasts and tries to closely predict yearly revenue and expense for the business. The budget can be updated with actual figures on a monthly basis and then you can revise your figures for the year, if needed. Cash Plow Budget: A cash flow budget details the amount of cash that will be collect and pay out. This is generally tallied on a monthly basis, but some businesses tabulate this weekly. In this budget, you track your sales and other receivables from income sources and contrast those against how much you will pay to suppliers and expenses. When there is a positive cash flow, it indicates that the business is growing. Capital Budget: The capital budget helps you to figure out how much money you will need to put in place for new equipment or procedures to launch new products or increase production or services. This budget estimates the value of capita purchases you need for your business to grow and increases revenues. Financial Budget: The financial budget will explain how the business will receives and spend the money achieved on a corporate scale from their capital expenditure. They will need to manage their assets which will have significant effect of the financial health on the company. However, managers will use this budget to help with leverage financing and value the company for mergers and public offering Of stocks. Budgets serve a variety of functions which includes planning, evaluating performance, coordinating activities, communicating, motivating and authorizing actions. A properly used budget can provide a benchmark or comparison point that alerts management to the first indication that their financial goals are unattainable. Four elements must be present in order for a budget to provide this type of information and control. Firstly the budget must be well envisioned, and prepared or approved by management, whilst secondly the budget must be broken down into periods corresponding to that periods financial statements. Thirdly throughout the year the financial statements must be prepared on a timely basis and a comparison made to the budget and fourthly management must be prepared to take action where ever the comparison with the budget indicates a significant deviation. The budget process plays an important role in the planning, decision-making ND controls within the organization. Therefore, it is essential for the company to improve the budgeting process in order to have a better understanding of the strategic goals, garner more coordinated support for those goals, and to improve the ability of the company to respond quickly to competition. There are several ways to improve the budget process. These are as follows: Link budget developments to corporate strategy Design procedures that allocate resources strategically. Tie incentives to performance measures other than meeting budget targets. Link cost management efforts to budgeting. Reduce budget complexity and cycle time Develop budgets that accommodate change The budget expresses how resources will be allocated and what measures will be used to evaluate progress, the budget development is more effective when linked to overall corporate strategy. Linking the two gives all managers and employees a clearer understanding of strategic goals. This understanding in turn, leads to greater support for goals, better coordination of tactics, and, ultimately, to stronger accompanied performance. To create this link, companies must communication their strategies to employees. Top management must take the lead in developing and communicating strategic goals. However, to develop those goals, top management needs information about customers, competitors, economic and technological change information that must come from customer-contact and support units. Companies that establish effective channels for communication find it easier to set challenging yet achievable strategic goals. Setting goals before budgeting begins makes it easier for budget developers at all levels. When this happens, budget developers create from the start budgets that support strategic goals and that, therefore, need fewer revisions. Budget development then becomes not only faster and less costly but also far less frustrating. Many companies still evaluate managers primarily on how closely they hit budget targets. While this may seem logical, in reality this type of one- dimensional evaluation tempts managers to win by playing games with budget targets. Such game playing isnt always in the companys best interest. For many companies, meeting budget targets is secondary to other performance measures. Such companies use a balanced set of performance measures to chart progress toward strategic goals, and use the same assure in their incentive programs. This reinforces the importance of key strategies and communicates what results will be rewarded. At many companies, business unit managers are involved in identifying the measures that are most relevant for their operations. Typically, some measures are financial, while others track progress in other efforts. For example, an appropriate nonofficial measure for one business unit may be product defect rate; for another, speed to market for new products. Once the measures are identified, higher-level management clarifies what targets each manager is expected to meet. Managers and employees receive training on the companys incentive program so that they understand the reason behind the rewards. By linking cost management efforts to budgeting, companies improve the quality of information available for managers to use in developing their budgets. Accurate cost information is fundamental to budgeting. Companies that use accurate cost management techniques and provide budget developers with ready access to cost information improve both the accuracy and the speed of their budget process. Companies strive to reduce budget complexity and streamline budgeting procedures. Such streamlining allows management to collect budget information, make allocation decisions, and communicate final targets in less time, at lower cost, and with less disruption to the companys core activities. By controlling the number of budgets that are needed and by standardizing budgeting methods, companies take important steps toward streamlining budgeting. Another key step is to minimize the amount of detail included in the reports used to develop budgets. Also, in their effort to streamline budgeting, leading companies use information technology to automate budgeting and facilitate workflow. These companies make sure that budget developers are thoroughly trained in new technologies. This training, together with ongoing monitoring of information needs accompanied, helps best practice companies deliver the right information to managers, on time and at the right cost. By developing budgets that accommodate change, companies can respond to competitive threats or opportunities more quickly and with greater precision. They can use resources efficiently to take advantage of the most promising opportunities. Furthermore, knowing that budgets have some flexibility frees budget developers from the need to pad budgets to over a wide variety of possible developments. This leads to leaner, more realistic budgets. Companies typically review budgets quarterly, monthly, or even weekly. By including in these reviews reports on changes in business conditions, companies alert managers that new tactics may be called for, if they are to meet their targets for the year. While it is important that budgets not be revised to cover up for poor performance or poor planning, best practice companies choose to revise budgets rather than adhere to budgets that do not reflect current conditions. Some companies rely on rolling or continuous forecasts rather than on traditional annual budgets. The chief difference between such forecasts and traditional budgets is that the forecast is updated with actual results as the company moves through the year. Figures for three or more subsequent quarters are projected in decreasing degree of detail. One way in which companies build flexibility into budgets is to prioritize according to strategic importance action plans that were rejected due to resource limitations. By doing this, they can act swiftly and decisively if additional resources become available. Another way in which companies evolve budgets that accommodate change is to require managers to create scenarios based on a variety of assumptions about business conditions. The affordability of powerful information technology allows for the creation of many what if scenarios. This practice makes it possible for companies to respond more quickly and effectively if actual conditions follow the pattern of a particular scenario. Companies also build flexibility into budgets by setting aside funds at the business-unit level to take advantage of competitive opportunities. Some companies even establish separate subsidiaries to look onto promising products or technologies. It is imperative that the budget be viewed as an essential tool to help companies to formulate better strategies for achieving its goals and objectives. The strategic planning is the long term plan of an organization and the budget is the short-term plan that contains more detail regarding the business operations. The budget is viewed as the blueprint or plan for the entire business which is prepared for the future period which it is designed by estimating and forecasting future trends in the market. The budget is used to evaluate the actual performance of a company r a section of the company with desirable performance which is based on a budget. It also provides information to the shareholders or investors so they may determine whether the business is a potential investment. Therefore, an excellent budget process should have the ability to convert objectives and desirable goods or future estimated outcomes into data. The budget should also be viewed as one way of positively influencing the behavior of managers within the organization as there are very few, if any decision and actions that managers can take which do not have some financial effect and which will nor abstinently be reflected in a comparison between budgeted and actual result. The nature of budgets is probably the most important advantage that a budgeting process has over most other systems in a typical organization. The ability to budget effectively is a very important part of being successful organization. This will been done through the exercise of preparing a budget which enables managers to promote planning, obtain directions, to make reasonable forecasts which will be serve as a monitoring tool which will predict financial support, promote communication and coordination, titivates and serves as a tool for evaluation and performance and ultimately determine how well the groups mission statement will be accomplished. In piloting the affairs of the organization a budget can be an extremely important and effective tool for management. However, to prepare a meaningful budget the organization must know where it is heading, its goals and objectives. As priorities change people should be involved in the budget preparation and approval process to ensure the resulting budget is fully supported as a budget is a tool of management, not a substitute for management.
Wednesday, February 19, 2020
National Guard Recruiting and Retention Support - Essay Example In the event of federal control of the federal authority, the National Guard is used to supplement the regular Army. This supplementation involves the bolstering of the regular army forces with additional combat units. This paper discusses the National Guard Recruiting and retention support. Origin The National Guard in the United States is the oldest unit of the Armed forces. In addition, the National Guard is one of the longest enduring institutions nationally. This year, the National Guard celebrated its 376th birthday on December 13. The origin of the National army dates back to the earliest North American English Colonies. Since the colonies were responsible for their own defense, they relied on the traditions of English Military and organized militias consisting of able-bodied male citizens. Through this militia, the colonists managed to defend citizens from foreign invaders and Indian attacks. In addition, the militia assisted in winning the war on revolution. After independen ce, the United StatesÃ¢â¬â¢ constitution authors gave power to the congress to allow for organizing, arming and disciplining the militia. However, the recruitment and training of the militia was the role of state. Until now, the national militia is a state-federal force (Nationalguard.mil, para2). The size of the regular army has remained small throughout the 19th century. ... After the Second World War, the National Guard Aviation units became Air National Guard Units. The Air National Guard unit is the latest Reserve component. During Berlin Crisis, the Air National Guard sends soldiers to fight Korea and reinforce NATO. Since then, the federal role of National Guard has changed. This role is currently characterized by call up to crisis response in Kosovo, Bosnia and Haiti. In the 2001 September 11 attacks, both state and federal authorities called upon guard members to offer national security and combat terrorism activities outside the nation. In the year 2005, 50000 guard members were deployed in Gulf States during the Hurricane Katrina event. For the states, the National Guard provides units that are trained and well armed to offer protection of property and life. In addition, National Guard continually provides defense to the United States and other interests throughout the globe. The National Guard is divided into subordinate units stationed in each of the 50 states, the District of Colombia and 3 territories. In each unit, the head of operations is the respective governor (Doubler 13). Functions of the National Guard The role of the National Guard includes responding to domestic disasters and emergencies. In order to get involved into active duty during such disasters, the state governors or territories commanding generals call the National Guard. Most common emergencies and disasters include those caused by earthquakes, hurricanes and floods. Members of the National Guard can become temporary or permanent members of the armed forces. Such appointments occur at the consent of the state governors while the National Guard members can remain active or inactive at the service of the nation. Army National